To do that requires critical thinking. Here’s some great tips on how to think critically thanks to Edudemic.
See the original post here. Quoted directly from that post are 4 steps to thinking critically:
Step 1: Knowledge
Identification and recall of information is key here. Answer the basic questions (Who, What, Why, Where, etc.)
Step 2: Comprehension
Organize your thoughts, select the facts, choose the ideas. Be able to interpret and paraphrase what you’re reading and learning.
Step 3: Application
Be able to use facts, rules, and apply principles. You should be able to find out information, solve problems, and give an example. This shows a higher level of understanding.
Step 4: Analysis
This is where the true learning really shines. Separate the whole topic or story into components / parts and pick each of these apart. Examine and then infer. Keep going! Do this for everything you’re hoping to learn about. You may just surprise yourself!